There was a clear sky for a while the next evening after my initial photos. I was able to take another set of photos on 12th and 13th November about 24 hours apart. Now the movement of the dwarf planet is clearly visible.
I've marked the dot on both pictures. The right one is from November 12th and the left from 13th. Time is about 20:30 (18:30 GMT).
This doesn't change my opinion on Stellarium. Now I know for sure it shows the position of Ceres wrong for about 10'. I compared it for the position of Uranus (which I was able to photograph yesterday Nov 15th) and that is as correct as I can see on the photo.